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Service objectives


The following list represents the Key Service Objectives (KSO) for the Appleton Greene Energy Management service.

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Energy efficiency

The cost of used energy sometimes is considerable part of the total cost of organization. It requires monitoring, measuring and control in order is kept in certain limits. Improved efficiency is an important topic in modern industries, facilities, city environments. Energy efficiency is a comparison between two or more situations, and it is constantly improving following the constant technological developments. The energy – water, air (compressed), oil & gas, electricity, heating & cooling, steam and their demand management require data collection & processing, bench marking and improvement plan. If in a building there is an installed Energy Management system, data gathering is a possible task. The information will be compared with the industry standards and improvements will be applied, some of them to be implemented immediately, others require investment decision. The initial walk-in premises’ inspection would induce short term improvements, with up to 25 % reduction of energy consumption, in a period of the first weeks of implementation. Reducing the demand is not always energy efficiency, because the national and international norms of the working environment shall be taken in consideration – climate, light, etc. The short term measures would be – usage of natural ventilation and natural light, instead of only the artificial ones; change of set point, ducts and filter cleaning of HVAC system; LED lighting; electrical power quality, motor controls and improved maintenance. Improvements that require investment decision would bring the improvement of energy efficiency to more than 50 %, including new chiller, lighting system, efficient motors or building envelop. If only Building automation is installed savings go to 22%. Some of those investments have pay-back period of more than a year, but positive results are coming immediately after installation. In case of missing Energy Management system, such will be considered by top management. The investment decisions will be scheduled after creation of an Energy Management process and system. Demand improvement measures, as avoiding the peaks in demand, or work time shifting, are giving visible measurable results, by changing only the price of electricity or gas in the cost estimation sheet. Other measures with visible and quick improvement results are in the supply side of the energy – different tariffs, energy suppliers, changing the primary energy supply as per local conditions. Exact calculation of return of investment is not possible, since the benefits from integration provides additional services and improves the existing ones. It can be considered generally that 10 % reduction of the maintenance cost is possible. I will support the decision with my experience in similar entities. There will be surveys done frequently among employees or clients and the opinions shall be taken into consideration for a fine tuning of the integration, or even general changes of the approach. By the energy efficiency attained in a short time, the company will enjoy a reduction of the cost of organization or in the cost of the delivered products.


Appleton Greene & Co Global 4

Building integration

The cost of used energy sometimes is considerable part of the total cost of organization. It requires monitoring, measuring and control in order is kept in certain limits. Improved efficiency is an important topic in modern industries, facilities, city environments. Energy efficiency is a comparison between two or more situations, and it is constantly improving following the constant technological developments. The energy – water, air (compressed), oil & gas, electricity, heating & cooling, steam and their demand management require data collection & processing, bench-marking and improvement plan. If in a building there is an installed Energy Management system, data gathering is a possible task. The information will be compared with the industry standards and improvements will be applied, some of them to be implemented immediately, others require investment decision. The initial walk-in premises’ inspection would induce short term improvements, with up to 25 % reduction of energy consumption, in a period of the first weeks of implementation. Reducing the demand is not always energy efficiency, because the national and international norms of the working environment shall be taken in consideration – climate, light, etc. The short term measures would be – usage of natural ventilation and natural light, instead of only the artificial ones; change of set point, ducts and filter cleaning of HVAC system; LED lighting; electrical power quality, motor controls and improved maintenance. Improvements that require investment decision would bring the improvement of energy efficiency to more than 50 %, including new chiller, lighting system, efficient motors or building envelop. If only Building automation is installed savings go to 22 %. Some of those investments have pay-back period of more than a year, but positive results are coming immediately after installation. In case of missing Energy Management system, such will be considered by top management. The investment decisions will be scheduled after creation of an Energy Management process and system. Demand improvement measures, as avoiding the peaks in demand, or work time shifting, are giving visible measurable results, by changing only the price of electricity or gas in the cost estimation sheet. Other measures with visible and quick improvement results are in the supply side of the energy – different tariffs, energy suppliers, changing the primary energy supply as per local conditions. Exact calculation of return of investment is not possible, since the benefits from integration provides additional services and improves the existing ones. It can be considered generally that 10 % reduction of the maintenance cost is possible. I will support the decision with my experience in similar entities. There will be surveys done frequently among employees or clients and the opinions shall be taken into consideration for a fine tuning of the integration, or even general changes of the approach. By the energy efficiency attained in a short time, the company will enjoy a reduction of the cost of organization or in the cost of the delivered products.


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CO2 reduction

The objective of CO2 reduction in power usage for company activities is becoming an important business issue in many parts of the world. It is possible in two ways – reduction of the energy consumption and/or renewable energy usage. The reduction of the energy consumption shall be done in a way, which does not affect negatively the production activities or business life of the company as the norms of the working environment shall be taken in consideration. Energy efficiency through creating an Energy Management system, improvement of power quality, demand management, supply improvement, installation of new equipment, systems’ integration, leads to reducing the ratio of CO2 gases in the provided services. Initially a calculation will be done – what is the production of CO2 gases, from power consumption – hourly, daily, monthly, seasonally, annually and 3 –year period. In case of recently installed Energy Management system, the comparison will be done based on before and after installation. If only Building automation is installed savings go to 22 %, which is translated in reduction of CO2 emissions to about 8-13%. The objectives energy efficiency, systems integration, improved facility and asset management, reduced spares stock, less nuisance alarms and even better business partnering with suppliers and clients, shall be translated to a total reduced CO2. That means all above measures, or at least most of them shall be taken, in order positive results of above 50 % are available. A reduction of CO2 emissions can be done by shifting the supply to renewable energy resources, by installation of any of those technologies nearby, or purchase on the open market. In some countries purchasing directly the power of a wind park for example, situated far from the entity is a viable and attractive opportunity, for companies that are trying to reduce their carbon footprint. Installation of own renewable utility is nowadays very much attractive, viable and giving good results’ in emission reduction development. The pay-back of investment is supported by the subsidies from government and by gradually reducing prices of the equipment. The roof top solar installation is a good solution, as it is better shade protected and doesn’t need additional space. The total power of electrical and gas facilities installed and time demand of the entity will be matched with the solar capacity. When necessary, additional power supply and storage can be provided from local or national grid. In case the capacity of the solar installation is covering all demand of the entity, the result of CO2 reduction will be very close to highest possible percentage. It can’t be 100 %, because the products, the installation work also produce some CO2 emissions and shall be taken into consideration in the total project calculation. There is a certain similarity with installation of wind park, although the investment’ pay-back is longer. There will be surveys done frequently among employees or clients and the opinions shall be taken into consideration for improvement measures, or even general changes of the approach.


Traffic control

City traffic is a big consumer of energy and strong generator of CO2 emissions. A proper control applied will bring improvements for city authorities, but also for the citizens and tourists. Applying controlling measures depend on the size of the city and many other factors. One of the main issues in cities is the parking. Sometimes cars do unnecessary driving, in order to find a place to park. Signboards will be installed, with updated information to the traffic participants, about the available parking places, and how to find. Those will contribute to reduced traffic and increase the average speed. As most of the time the drivers have short time to notice and read the information, real good results can be expected in a time of several weeks to 1-2 months. The cost of the investment is relatively low, in comparison with other technologies. The rate of improvement depends on the size of traffic, exact time of the day, the number of parking places available, etc., but a general improvement of more than 10 % reducing of traffic, is not a rare case. Another activity, related to parking is a determination of different charging zones in the cities. The central part of the city will be zone for forbidden parking or highest fee level zone, in case there is a well-developed city transport. In next zones the charges will be gradually decreasing. In such way the big traffic will be pushed out from the center, making it walking or cultural zone. The results will come soon after application and the city center will enjoy a clean air and noiseless environment. This measure shall be taken after strong improvement of the public transport. A public informational campaign is necessary, as such measure create public discontent. Speed enforcement is a strong tool for traffic control. Speed limits shall be specified and communicate to the public. Installation of centrally controlled system with cameras on important locations, recording each violation automatically and inform the police or generate penalty notice, will provide results in a period of several weeks. The cost of the investment is relatively high and requires gradual implementation. A public informational campaign is necessary, as such measure create public discontent. Street lighting is another factor in the traffic control. The modern LED lighting technologies make the control easier. Dimming, switching, allocation of defected luminary is centrally controlled and serviced. The cost of this investment is relatively high, as the equipment installation lasts 20-25 years, contributing also to a nice city visual environment and crime deterrent. A properly designed installation gives immediate improvement to the traffic and public perception. The exact rate of improvement depends much on the previous situation. There will be surveys done frequently among citizens and the opinions shall be taken into consideration for improvement measures, or even general changes of the approach.


Appleton Greene & Co Global 6

Consultative selling

All entities are selling their products to their customers – the company sells products and solutions, the governmental organization sells services to the society, facility management organization sells services to office or shopping mall building. On the markets of energy, facility management or building management, a lot of companies sell products, solutions and services. The distinction shall be made, in order the best possible vendor or service provider company to be discovered for the intended Energy Management system and the equipment involved. If a company which provides facility services to a tenant company, plans to promote its image as an advanced environment care one, with low carbon footprint and makes a plan for energy efficiency, systems integration or just some facility improvements, through installation of Energy Management system. This will require capital investments, which shall affect the rental fee as well, but ultimately will reduce bills of electricity, gas, water, etc. In a certain period the result for the tenant will be positive, but it must be convinced to accept this additional cost at the beginning. Exact calculation of return of investment is not possible, since the benefits from integration provides additional services and improves the existing ones. It can be considered generally that 10 % reduction of the maintenance cost is possible. I will support the decision with my experience in similar entities. Here the focal point of this consultative selling shall be the uncovering the needs of the tenant – better climate, lighting, or fire protection, reliable and quick control of systems, reducing energy bill and better services. When qualifying its client / partner, the service company must know the business and performance of the tenant, immediate treats to his business or necessities. That approach will help the service provider to create a tailor made solution for the Energy Management system. Creating a rapport of mutual trust and agreement in idea creation, design, technical solutions, in application, in phases of installation, is basis for best technology and cost beneficial decisions. A dialogue between service and tenant companies will bring the process of investment decision making to a short and productive one. In the best case the improvement rate of a good partnership between partners, as a result of a consultative selling, can bring the time and cost of the installation process, same as installation a system for own usage for the service company. The opposite of that are long lasting negotiations, looking for various own proposal from both sides, argues on the technologies and products and other similar issues, that will make the project longer, costly and partial solution. There will be surveys done frequently among employees, managers and visitors of the tenant company and the opinions shall be taken into consideration for improvement measures, or even general changes of the approach.


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Business partnering

A constant development of business partnering is a viable objective due to the nature of the Energy Management. As the structure and scope of any system depends on the requirements, investments solutions, geography and other factors, a tailor made solution is the answer. This requires the partnership with technology and integration vendors to start at the very beginning of the process – idea creation, through data gathering and design. Involvement of the partner/s at that stage will help the company to outline its intention at an early stage and concentrate its efforts on single or two options, when relations of mutual trust and agreement with vendor partner exist. As the best applicable technical and integration solution is what the company is looking for, at least two vendors shall be involved in the process at the beginning, till the design is prepared. Transparent activities and mutual understanding will diminish competition fighting between vendors. The company shall keep in mind, that next project would be with different technology. A dialogue between the company and vendor will bring the process of investment decision to a short and productive one. Avoiding tendering process and independent solution, but keeping the partners involved in the project at the beginning is an approach in private projects, with own financing. In some cases of such approach the project can start very early – at the time of data gathering, it is recognized for example, that motors are not well controlled. Improvement can be applied shortly, and so for other technologies, until all necessary done and integration starts. Such tailor made solution is relevant for Energy Management system, as it must be installed in phases and changing in the design settings is frequent. Another approach is, if the company appoints designer, after tendering, who can make optional solutions, afterwards those to be tendered and the technological supplier to be defined at that moment. In this way the company will keep independent from vendors and various non-business influences. This approach is applicable in big national or international projects, or by the requirement of projects financing. This process takes months, until the project execution starts. Business partnering in this approach starts later, when parties try to match product specification with the design requirements, and continues throughout all project execution and maintenance. The development of business partnering is important in the times of maintenance. The company cannot keep expertise for all installed technologies and can use the specialists and facilities of the vendor partner for the training of own staff, but also in time of emergency response. The same apply for keeping stock of spares. Relying on the vendor’s warehouse’ availability is step to reducing cost of stock and better cash flow. The business partnering objective leading to extended company structure, between the company and vendor, is attainable and can last for long period with mutual interest. Frequent surveys shall be done among both partners and various departments, in order the level of mutual understanding and interest is checked and improved.


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Facility management

Integration of technological systems and energy saving approach is important part of Facility management. That is why the establishment of Energy Management procedures will contribute to improvement of the facility services. If a system is installed already, the objective of Facility Management will be accomplished with organizational and technical integration of energy providing facilities with other services available in certain entity. Each part requires different expertise, but the reporting and controlling shall be to one point. Improvement the systems – IT, security, electrical, fire protection, lighting, gas, water, or HVAC makes them not only energy efficient, but also will reduce the service necessities. Any motor working on better loading conditions, or electrical devices supplied by high quality electrical power will significantly improve their service life. The exact rate can be calculated with the comparison before and after improvement. If a new lighting is installed with LED, the energy saving would be more than 50 %, the service life goes up with 3-4 times, repair and changes will be less, and generated heat will be less, thus reducing the heat load of the building. Or if filter and duct cleaning of HVAC is done more frequently, the system provides better climate with less emergencies. Implementation of such measures reduces service needs and staff, conditions are checked automatically, and stock of spares is reduced and controllable. A decision for integration, new technologies and equipment, shall be taken in consideration of the financial aspects. Total integration is an ideal case, which rarely occurs. The balance of less staff and more technologies or the opposite, must be taken into consideration. Exact calculation of return of investment is not possible, since the benefits from integration provides additional services and improves the existing ones. It can be considered generally that 10 % reduction of the maintenance cost is possible. I will support the decision with my experience in similar entities. Sometimes too many technologies make people feel uncomfortable, especially in hotels where visitors are coming to take a rest, but not to be surrounded by signalling gadgets. Building integration, contributing to improvement of the facility services, will be combined with the employees or visitor’ feelings and opinions, and the financial result, in order we have an energy efficient facility, services are done in pro-active way, data is available, unnecessary alarms are avoided, proper security and fire protection, customers, visitors or employees are satisfied by services they receive, stock of spares is low. If Energy Management or Building Management systems are not established in the company, I propose such system to be considered by the top management. Integration of all those complex system requires changing of procedures in the organization, training of the staff, various external communications – police, fire brigade, etc. and the process can take months.


Lighting psychology

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Lighting is one of the significant energy consumers either in indoor and in outdoor environment. The latest technical developments make already possible full control of usage. Artificial lighting in building, in general consumes almost 40 % of the energy, differences depends on the type – office, mall or hotel, or else. Quick results can be achieved, by changing the light sources to LED, installing presence detectors, and using natural light. Those improvements can lead to more than 25 % less energy used. Investment projects of new LED installation will bring energy saving to above 50 %, bringing service life up 3-4 times, the repairs much less and produced heat much less, thus reducing the heat load of the building. All those measures lead to reducing of service needs, conditions will be checked automatically, and stock of spares will be reduced and properly controlled. Reducing the demand is not always energy efficiency, because the norms of the working environment shall be taken in consideration, as per national, international norms and codes, and if necessary – company rules. Well illuminated premises contribute to well-being and support business activities of employees. Therefore a balance between energy saving and people feelings shall be considered. Modern lighting technologies allow complete control on the energy used, the color temperature and color rendering index. Thus lighting is not only giving visibility, but also provides a psychological effect. Lighting influences the human behavior in a direct and in a subtle way. The color temperature, uniformity, contrast and lighting level, play role in human perception of the environment. Those make people feel relaxed, or excited, or perplexed, lead them to certain object. Lighting, being an electrical energy, strongly participates in the architectural design, supporting or even enhancing the general idea of the purpose of a certain object. Lighting goes even beyond that application. The sun supplies visibility and commands also the human biological clock, so called circadian rhythm, activating certain hormones in humans for giving energy, activating brains, supporting awareness. The artificial lighting is trying to play the same role, by specially designed technical features, following the circadian rhythm with scenes, and is affecting the productivity in the office and industry. For example 6500 K gives activation of the brains and makes everybody works with stronger energy and less errors; 3000 K gives calm ambiance and relaxation; 4000 K is the normal color temperature in the office. Various sensors in the premises will make the light on or off, check the color temperature and uniformity; controllers will interact with sensors and change the status, with Building management system. The psychological effect cannot be evaluated in another way, but by the perception of the affected people. There will be surveys done frequently among employees or clients and the opinions shall be taken into consideration for a fine tuning of the solutions, or even general changes of the approach.


Market research

A Market research in Energy management is supporting several parts of it. Topics to be covered are – who are the technological suppliers locally, what is the market requirement for energy saving, are there local norms for CO2 emissions, how are the international norms accepted locally, what is the public perception of saving energy, is renewable energy widespread, the list can be longer. The globalization gave opportunity to everybody to enjoy technologies brought from other parts of the world, but when it comes to a real project and equipment installation, the local conditions prevails. The business partnering, which proved to be a key to success, requires the partnership with technology and integration vendors to start at the very beginning of the process – idea creation, through data gathering and design. In case of step-by-step, long lasting installation of Energy Management system, different technologies are tested and various equipment is commissioned. The requirement of physical participation in such cases on project site is a must. Only locally presented vendors can do tailor made solutions, applicable for Energy Management. The following activities: the commissioning, training, after-sales activities and emergency responses, re-confirm that. A proper market research will show the best players on the local market. Local norms for energy saving and CO2 emissions can be different from the international norms and can change the total idea of the company. Research on the matter will show whether such project shall be done at all, or may be the market has even higher requirements than the international ones. Political situation also plays important role when it comes to legislation. A low public perception and weak legislation will make an Energy Management project questionable, as the investment cost will be less justifiable and vice versa, strong public opinion and supportive laws will make the project attractive. The improvement rate could be from 0-100 %. The same applies for installation of renewable energy utilities. In such case the climate shall be considered as well, whether it is supportive to any technology. on this matter a research can take 2 to 3 years, as wind speed or solar radiation shall be investigated in all seasons; environment impact assessment is also rather long; proper places for installation could be not easy available. In those researches capital investments are rather high – for example the cost of wind masts, workforce situated on open air, bat allocation equipment, etc. The success rate of project with market research in comparison with such without can be 100 %. The results from market research can vary, depending on the quality of the research done.